کارآفرینی در صنعت دانش ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

استادیار مؤسسة پژوهش و برنامه‌ریزی آموزش عالی

چکیده

صنعت دانش، یکی از صنایع مهم و کلیدی در عصر حاضر است که جایگاه برجسته‌ای در کشورهای پیشرفته دارد. کارآفرینی در این صنعت، مقدمة کارآفرینی در صنایع دیگر است. در مقاله حاضر، ضمن بررسی اکتشافی ادبیات نظری و تجربی «کارآفرینی مبتنی بر دانش»، کارآفرینی در صنعت دانش ایران در دروه 80 ساله «1305-1385» بررسی شده است. نتایج بررسی‌ها نشان می‌دهد که کارآفرینی دانش و مبتنی بر دانش، در ایران بسیار ضعیف و ناپایدار بوده است. با مراجعه به نتایج بررسی‌های اکتشافی می‌توان ‌دریافت که «عدم انگیزه کافی»، «دخالت بی‌قاعده، بی‌رویه و بیش از اندازه دولت در صنایع دانش و مبتنی بر دانش»، «سیاست‌های نامناسب»، «کمبود سرمایه انسانی کارآفرینی، سرمایه‌ خطرپذیر و سرمایه اجتماعی»، «شرایط اقتصادی و اجتماعی نامناسب»، «ضعف فرهنگ کارآفرینی آکادمیک» و «زیر ساخت‌های کارآفرینی آکادمیک» از جمله عواملی هستند که موجب ضعف کارآفرینی در صنعت دانش شده‌اند. بدیهی است که برای توسعه کارآفرینی در این صنعت، لازم است که عوامل بازدارنده یاد شده از میان بر‌داشته شود و عوامل محرک تقویت شود. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Entrepreneurship in Iran’s Knowledge Industry

نویسندگان [English]

  • Yaghoub Entezari
  • Mohammad Javad Salehi
چکیده [English]

Knowledge Industry is one of the most important industry in this new era which has a valuable place in developed contries.In this essay while developing a conceptual framework for knowledge entrepreneurship and knowledge- based entrepreneurship analysis, the change of these in Iran have examined from the last eight decades. The results indicate that knowledge entrepreneurship and knowledge –based entrepreneurship in Iran is too weak and unstable. Referring to conceptual framework can indicate that at least six factors are effective in this problem. The main factor is public nature of knowledge that doesn't make enough motivation for entrepreneurship. The second factor is irregular, unmethodical and excessive intervention of government in knowledge industry and knowledge-based industry. The third factor emerges from absence or weakness of suitable policy. The forth factor narrates about the shortage of entrepreneurship human capital, venture capital and social capital. The fifth factor is economic and social status as revolution and war. At the end the sixth factor is lake of academic entrepreneurship culture and its infrastructures, as an example science and technology parks and incubators in before revolution and two decades after it, and also their weakness in this decade

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Knowledge Entrepreneurship
  • Knowledge -based Entrepreneurship
  • Knowledge Based Economy

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