Evaluating and measuring intellectual capital in universities and higher education institutes: case study of educational campuses in Yazd University

Document Type : Original Article



From the strategic point of view, intellectual capital is a major driver for growth and development of organizations. This intangible asset is used to create knowledge and enhance performance of higher education institutes. The success of these institutes relies on their intellectual capital status. Given the focus on public universities, managing intellectual capital and knowledge has been a target of increasing attention by experts and researchers. Chancellors and administrators of public universities should support the role of intellectual capital in enabling educational innovation and research excellence. Hence, in this study we have evaluated and then measured the status of intellectual capital .Findings of the current study show significant differences in terms of intellectual capital between the investigated campuses. It was found that humanities campus had a low score in all aspects of intellectual capital except for human capital. Additionally, engineering campus had just one satisfactory score in relational capital and other aspects of intellectual capital had a less-than-average score. Besides, the result of ranking intellectual capital aspects indicates that teaching skills are of highest importance.


آذر، عادل و رجب زاده، علی (1381). تصمیم‌گیری کاربردی. تهران، انتشارات نگاه دانش.
اصغرپور، محمد جواد (1383). تصمیم­گیری چند معیاره. چاپ سوم. انتشارات دانشگاه تهران.
Austrian Research Centers (1999). Intellectual Capital Report. Austrian Research Centers. Vienna.
Bhartesh K. R., Bandyopadhyay A. K. (2005). Intellectual Capital: Concept and its Measurement. Finance India. NO. 4, pp. 1365-1375.
Bontis, N. (1998). Intellectual capital: an exploratory study that develops measures and models. Managing Decision. Vol. 36. No. 2. pp.63-76.
Bontis, N. (2000). Assessing knowledge assets: a review of the models used to measure intellectual capital. available at: www.business.mcmaster.ca
Bontis, N. (2001). Assessing knowledge assets: a review of the models used to measure intellectual capital. International Journal of Management Reviews. Vol. 3. No. 1. pp. 41-60.
Bontis, N. Crossan, M. and Hulland, j. (2002). Managing an organizational learning system by aligning stocks and flows. Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 39. No. 4. June. pp. 437-466.
Bontis, N., (1999). Managing organizational Knowledge by diagnosing intellectual capital: framing and advancing the state of the field. International Journal of technology Management. Vol.18. No.5/6. pp. 433-462.
Brooking, A. (1996). Intellectual Capital. International Thompson Business Press. London.
Chen J., Zhu Z., Yuan Xie H. (2004). Measuring Intellectual capital: a new model and empirical study. Journal of Intellectual Capital. Vol. 5. No. 1. pp. 195-212.
Edvinsson, L. and Malone, M.S. (1997). Intellectual Capital: Realizing Your Company’s True Value by Finding Its Hidden Brainpower. HarperBusiness Press. New York. NY.
Edvinsson, L. and Sullivan, P. (1996). Developing a model for managing intellectual capital. European Management Journal. Vol. 14. No. 2. pp. 356-64.
Etzkowitz, H. and Leydesdorff, L. (2001). The dynamics of innovation: from national systems and ‘Mode 2’ to a triple helix of university-industry-government relations. Research Policy. Vol. 29. No. 2. pp. 109-23.
European Commission (2000). Innovation policy in a knowledge-based economy. Merit Study commissioned by the European Commission Enterprise Directorate.
European Commission (2005). Mobilising the Brainpower of Europe: Enabling Universities to Make their Full Contribution to the Lisbon Strategy. COM (2005) 152 Final. European Commission. Brussels.
Garcia-Ayuso M. (2003). Intangibles: Lessons from the past and a look into the future. Journal of Intellectual Capital. Vol. 4. No. 4. pp. 597-604.
Garnett. Jonathan (2001). Work based learning and the intellectual capital of universities and employers. The Learning Organization. Volume 8. Number 2. pp. 78-81.
Gibbons, M. (1998). Higher education relevance in the 21st century. Education affociation commonwealth universitys.
Harrison S & Sullivan Sr. PH. (2000). Profiting from intellectual capital. Journal of Intellectual Capital. Vol. 1, No. 1. pp. 33-46.
Itami, H. (1987). Mobilizing Invisible Assets. Harvard University Press. London.
Kendrick, J.W. (1974). The accounting of human investment and capital. Review of Income and Wealth. Vol. 20. December.
Leitner, K.-H. and Warden, C. (2003). Managing and reporting knowledge-based resources and processes in research organisations: specifics, lessons learned and perspectives, Management Accounting Research, Vol. 15 No. 1, pp. 33-51.
 Lev, B. (1997). The old rules no longer apply. Forbes. 7 April.
Lev, B. (2000). Intangibles: management, measurement and reporting. Available at www.baruch-lev.com
Lev, B., (2001). Intangibles: Management, Measurement, and Reporting. Brookings Institution Press. Washington, DC.
Marr, G. Schiuma, A. Neely (2002). Assessing strategic nowledge assets in e-business, International Journal of Business Performance Management. 4 (2–4). pp. 279–295.
Martı´nez-Torres, M.R. (2006). A procedure to design a structural and measurement model of Intellectual Capital: An exploratory study. Journal of Information & Management. 43. pp. 617–626.
Mayo, A. (2001). The Human Value of the Enterprise: Valuing People as Assets: Monitoring, Measuring, Managing. Nicholas Brealey Publishing, London.
Roos, G.; Roos, J. (1997a). Measuring your companys intellectual performance. Long Range Planning. Vol. 30. No. 3. pp. 413-426.
Roos, J., G. Roos, N.C. Dragonetti and L. Edvinsson (1997b). Intellectual Capital: Navigating in the New Business Landscape.
Macmillan, Houndmills, Basingtoke.
Rudez H. N., Mihali N. (2007). Intellectual capital in the hotel industry: A case study from Slovenia. Hospitality Management. 26. pp. 188–199.
Sanchez, M. Paloma and Elena, Susana (2006). Intellectual capital in universities: Improving transparency and internal management. Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 7. No. 4, pp. 529-548.
Sanchez, M. Paloma; Castrillo, Rocío; Elena, Susana. (2006). Paper presented at the International Conference on Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators. History and New Perspectives. Lugano 15-17. November.
Sandra C., N. Kaimenakis. (2007). Intellectual capital and corporate performance in knowledge-intensive SMEs. The Learning Organization. Vol. 14. No. 3, 2007, pp. 241-262.
Seetharaman, K.L.T. Low, A.S. Saravanan (2004). Comparative justification on intellectual capital, Journal of Intellectual Capital. Vol. 5. No. 4. pp. 522–539.
Skoog M. (2003). Visualizing value creation through the management control of intangibles. Journal of Intellectual Capital. Vol. 4. No. 4. pp. 487-504.
Stewart, T. (1997). Intellectual capital: the new wealth of organizations, available at: http://members.aol.com
UNESCO World Conference on Higher Education. Paris. 5-9 October.
Viedma, J.M. (2003). In search of an intellectual capital general theory. Electronic Journal on Knowledge Management. Vol. 1. No. 2, pp. 213-26.
Wang, W.Y. and Chang, C. (2005). Intellectual capital and performance in causal models: evidence from the information technology industry in Taiwan. Journal of Intellectual Capital. Vol. 6. No. 2. pp. 222-36.
Westphalen, S. (1999). Reporting on human capital: objectives and trends. paper presented at the International Symposium Measuring Reporting Intellectual Capital: Experiences, Issues, and Prospects. OECD. Amsterdam. June.