رویکردها و روش‌های اساسی در خصوص محاسبة سرمایة انسانی; مقایسة روش‌ها و ارائه یک مدل مفهومی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار مؤسسه پژوهش و برنامه ریزی آموزش عالی

2 مدرس، پژوهشگر و مشاور مدیریت شهرداری تهران

3 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت آموزش عالی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

4 عضو هیـأت علمی دانشکده مدیریت دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد مرکز

چکیده

یکی از مشکلات اساسی در تابع تولید، جایگزین کردن متغیری است که بتواند اثر سرمایه انسانی بر رشد اقتصادی را به‌خوبی تشریح کند. بر این اساس، هدف این مقاله، تعیین متغیری است که بتواند بخش وسیعی از سرمایة انسانی را پوشش دهد. مطالعات نشان داد که برآورد سرمایة انسانی به ارزش پولی، بهترین پراکسی از سرمایه انسانی است؛ لذا ابتدا روش‌ها و رویکردهای مختلفی که می‌توانند ارزش دقیق‌تری از سرمایة انسانی را نشان دهند با استفاده از مطالعات تطبیقی و اسناد موجود در کشورهای مختلف مورد مقایسه شده و به سه رویکرد اساسی در کنار سایر روش‌ها توجه شد. با بررسی و تحلیل رویکردها و روش‌های موجود، یک مدل و چارچوب مفهومی استخراج شد که سرمایه انسانی را ارزش حال سرمایه گذاری‌های گذشته و درآمدهای به‌دست آمده در آینده می‌داند. نتیجة دیگر این که سرمایه انسانی‌ فقط ماحصل آموزش و آن هم از سوی دولت نبوده بلکه پارامترهایی چون بهداشت، تجربه، سرمایه گذاری‌های بخش خصوصی و خانوارها را نیز دربر می گیرد. مقایسة کشورهای جهان در بازه زمانی متفاوت، حاکی از آن است که برآورد روش‌ها دارای همگرایی هستند که خود می‌تواند مؤید علمی بودن و دقیق بودن آنها باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Approaches and Methods in Measuring Human Capital: Comparing Methods and Providing a Conceptual Model

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Javad Salehi 1
  • Gashtasb Mozafari 2
  • Shadi Rouhani 3
  • Mansoureh Aligholi 4
چکیده [English]

: One fundamental problem in production function is to find and submit a variable which can be able to illustrate the effect of human capital on economic growth well. However in most studies, only some parts of human capital are illustrated by the submitted variables. Accordingly, the main purpose of this study is to determine a variable which covers more parts of the human capital. Therefore, initially three different approaches and methods which represent the exact value of human capital are compared. Through analyzing these approaches and methods a conceptual framework was achieved which indicates the human capital as current value of the past investments and the future incomes. Another result of this study is that the human capital is not only consequence of the education which is provided by the government, but also other parameters like health, experience and etc. on the other hand, private investment and families are involved. Ultimately, comparing the methods applied by economist in different countries for different time periods implies that although these methods and approaches are different, there was a convergence in estimating the model through these methods. Hence, the convergence proves that these methods are somewhat precise and scientific.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • human capital
  • Monetary Value
  • Conceptual model
  • Measuring Human Capital Approaches

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